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AUTHENTICITY STANDARDS
FOR THE
44TH TENNESSEE CONSOLIDATED INFANTRY


These guidelines have been created for Members and Recruits of the 44th Tennessee Consolidated Infantry as a tool to maintaining the highest levels of authenticity and military bearing. Many of these standards are also applicable to C.S. forces in general. These standards are based upon standards used by other campaign units which include the 10th Texas, the Rowdy Pards, and the 37th Virginia. Heavy reliance has been placed upon the authenticity guidelines for the Living History Volunteers of Pickett's Mill State Historic Park of Dallas, Georgia.

Nearly all of the uniforms & equipment recommended by these guidelines are illustrated in the set of Time-Life books, Echoes of Glory: 1) Arms & Equipment of the Confederacy and 2) Arms & Equipment of the Union, therefore, images from that series are included to each particular item in these guidelines by book & page number. Items will be abbreviated as [EOG/CS] for the Confederate book & [EOG/US] for the Union book. References to Echoes of Glory are included only as a visual reference only, and are not a source of documentation for the items below. These series of books can be obtained at most popular bookstores and libraries.

A General Note of Caution to all new members
(
and even some old hands):

Few things are more annoying than an individual who makes an inappropriate purchase then approaches other reenactors asking them, "Is this O.K. for me to wear?" Avoid the hassle. Ask before you buy, that way you won't get stuck with something you just won't be able to wear.

The below standards are stiff. Few reenactors presently meet these standards; however, they are goals to which every reenactor should, and can, achieve. For a short time, standards in the 44th Tennessee will be relaxed to get soldiers on the field. This does not mean that there are no standards. It is still an, ask-before-you-purchase system. For present reenactors who choose to join the 44th, your present gear is grandfathered and is acceptable - for now. However, any replacements of gear should comply with these new standards. For example: a Type II Richmond Depot jacket is incorrect for this unit. An old soldier will be allowed to continue wearing the jacket, but it should be replaced when wore out or as soon as practicable.

A. What is Expected.

New recruits ("fresh fish") have 14 months to purchase their initial items. After 12 months, fresh fish no longer have priority on loaner items.

Uniform: shirt, trousers, braces, jacket, socks, shoes ("Jefferson" Brogans), head wear
Equipment: haversack, canteen, tin cup, mess gear

Equipment: poncho/gum blanket, cartridge box, cap pouch, waist belt, GA frame buckle, wool blanket, two shelter halves

Equipment: 1842 or 1861 U.S. Springfield, bayonet/scabbard

After possessing all the above items, you may request "veteran status." This involves a full lay out of your initial items and an inspection. Any items that do not pass must be replaced before you receive "veteran status." Your attitude and knowledge of drill will also be considered.

B. Purchasing Clothing and Equipment.

  1. Do not purchase anything except from the approved vendor for that item. Just because the vendor is approved for one item that does not mean anything else they sell is approved.
  2. Buy your shoes first. There won't be any loaner shoes. Do not buy cheap or unapproved shoes just to get on the field. Make sure they fit, then break them in. The next items you'll need are your shirt, drawers, suspenders and socks. Buy your mess equipment at or before your first event.
  3. Some of the approved vendors have long delivery times. Do not order at the last minute. Plan ahead.
  4. The approved vendors do not travel to Nor'west events. Do not expect that you'll be able to buy appropriate items from event sutlers. You'll have to purchase your gear by mail-order.
  5. Do not waste your money by getting all fired up and purchasing hundreds of dollars worth of junk.
  6. Do not confuse low-quality, junk loaner clothing or equipment with items from approved vendors. Most loaner items are our mistakes ands we'd be glad to explain our mistakes.
  7. You are responsible to "do it right" if you want to be a Campaigner.

C. General.

  1. Hair. The military regulations of both sides required that the soldier's hair and beard be short. Study a period photographs to determine how well you'd fit in. The Revised Regulations for the United States Army (1861) and the Regulations for the Army of the Confederate States, (1863) both state: "The hair to be worn short; the beard at the pleasure of the individual; but when worn, to be kept short and neatly trimmed." Accordingly, hair styles outside the period norm are not negotiable. Women in the ranks must do their best to disguise their feminine qualities just as women in the ranks then disguised theirs.
  2. Jewelry. A private soldier of the War rarely wore any jewelry beyond a simple wedding band. No wristwatches. Wristwatches did not exist (they were popularized during the First World War). They must be removed during events in order to make a more effective impression. This is not negotiable.
  3. Spectacles. Period eyeglass are required - or you must wear contacts. This is not negotiable.
  4. Buttonholes which can be clearly seen (in other words, on the front of a jacket or coat) must be hand sewn. It is much easier to sew button holes than you might believe.
  5. Condition of clothing. The 44th's impression is that of an army on the march. Your clothing should not be pristinely clean when you arrive at an event. In other words, leave the mud on it and look like you have been in the field for weeks, not minutes.
  6. Let General Wm. T. Sherman's remark about his troops be your guide: "The longer these men are in the service, the more they look like day laborers than soldiers."

I. UNIFORMS

A. HEADGEAR

Hats are probably one of the biggest sore points among veterans, and can be the crowning glory or the peak of farbiness, depending on what is done to them and how they look. However, minor changes can often transform the farbiest piece of headgear into a perfectly authentic item.

There has been an ongoing dispute among Confederate re-enactors as to whether the kepi, forage cap (bummer) or slouch hat was most prevalent among the southern soldier. Based upon the few existing photographs of Confederate regiments and P.O.W.'s, the overwhelming majority of Confederate soldiers wore slouch hats, some wore kepis, and a few wore forage caps. A civilian spectator to fighting in Petersburg wrote, "I saw that it was true, that the enemy were near the city....I knew the men I saw were Federal soldiers by the caps they wore, our men wearing slouch hats." Therefore, the company should mostly have slouch hats, but a kepi or two can't hurt.

  1. Slouch hats - The slouch hat is one of the most visible parts of a persons attire, and therefore must be of the highest quality. Black is the traditional color, but shades of beige, gray and brown add a nice touch of diversity to the ranks. It also allows for personal taste. Edge of brim as well as hat band should be bound with silk ribbon. [EOG/CS -pages 166-169].

    Once a hat has been selected you may wish to make some changes to it. However, don't feel obligated to do so. Some folks will buy perfectly good hats, and then spoil them by loading them up with hat brass, cords, plumes, and assorted animal parts ('coontails, etc.). There are documentable ornate hats in existence, but keep in mind you are trying to portray the common, not the unusual, soldier (e.g. leopard skin pants, etc.).

    A search through period photographs of Confederate soldiers will turn up very few men wearing fancy or overly decorated hats. Evidence suggests that most hats were brought from civilian life with very few changes made to them.

    One of the most popular styles of the time was the round crowned, blocked woolen felt hat. The brims were kept curved up, especially on the sides. They were often edged with silk tape. The "Stetson" style cowboy hat, the direct descendant of the Confederate slouch hat, did not exist yet (contrary to Hollywood's persistent portrayal of the Civil War). Very few men wore "droopy" hats if they could at all help it. In fact, if the brim drooped down they would pin it up in front to get it to dry in that position and keep it out of their eyes. They would not leave it permanently pinned there however, but only until it assumed the correct shape.
  2. Kepis and Forage caps- should be made of jean wool with tarred canvas or leather bill and with leather sweatband. A captured Yank blue "bummer" (M1858 Forage Cap) makes a nice touch, but only for a few individuals in the line. [EOG/CS - pages 162 & 163]. Unless you are portraying an officer, no C.S. forage caps.

B. SHIRTS:

  1. Civilian shirts - Civilian Shirts - Fabrics must be woven of 100% natural fibers, i.e. cotton or wool. Plaids and checks should be woven, not printed. Basic assembly may be machine sewn, but exterior details and buttonholes shall be handsewn. Buttons shall be of appropriate size and made of glass, bone, agate or wood. ( EOG/US - page 126, EOG/CS - pages 154 & 155 ).

    Shirt buttons should be of period materials, especially glass, bone, shell, not larger than 1/4" to 3/8" in diameter, and not too fancy. Shirts may have pockets as soldiers frequently requested the folks at home to add a pocket or two when making shirts.
  2. Military shirts - Do not purchase the white cotton shirts claimed by sutlers to be a U.S. military shirt because these shirts are not the off-white U.S. military shirts made of wool flannel.

C. JACKETS:

In an effort to have some uniformity, jackets for the 44th Tennessee will be available only from the 44th's quartermaster. All will be of the same cut and from the same type of jean cloth. The below types are noted to provide an example of types that are generally allowable.

Jackets should be of jean cloth material and of documented construction and pattern. Jackets should be fully lined. The 9-button front is standard type. NCO insignia shall be worn on the sleeve despite one's rank within the unit. When rank insignia is worn, only cotton or woolen tape trim shall be used, which should be hand sewn directly onto the trouser seam, not jacket sleeve. Examples of jackets include:

  1. Any Army of Tennessee (A.O.T.) identified jacket.
  2. Orphan Brigade/Columbus Depot/Georgia Jacket. [EOG/CS - page 143].
  3. Atlanta Depot. [EOG/CS - page 143].
  4. Milledgeville/Augusta Depot (Limited use). [EOG/CS - page 142].
  5. Mobile Depot (Limited use). [EOG/CS - page 141].
  6. North Carolina Depot (Limited use). [EOG/CS - page 144].
  7. No Richmond Depot style jackets are allowed because these are associated with the Army of Northern Virginia (ANV). The exception is where the unit portrays 1864-65 when the unit was assigned to the Eastern theater.

D. TROUSERS:

("Trousers" was a period term; however, many period documents consistently list them as "Pants.")

Trousers should not have belt loops or leg creases. There should be no stripes or piping of any kind except on NCO's or officers trousers. The pockets should be side-slit or especially mule-ear. All trousers must have button flies. Either tie-backs or belt backs are acceptable but belt back trousers are preferred. Buttons should be made of either bone, pewter or lacquered metal.

No zippers, back pockets, and especially no trousers "converted" from modern pants, please!

  1. Civilian jean - Original patterns in gray, blue, brown or black. Hand top stitching, with hand-sewn button holes [EOG/CS - pages 125, 145, 146, 149, 152 & 153]. Buttons of bone, composition or stamped tin.
  2. Civilian wool - Identified style and pattern, hand-sewn button holes. [EOG/CS - page 152].
  3. Military Issue - Richmond Depot style - Mule ear pockets, no yoke. Back belt with buckle. Made from jeans or cassimere for time period of Spring '62 through Winter '64. Wool kersey of the proper weight may be used for Spring '64 through Appomattox. Buttons may be bone, composition, or japanned tin of the proper style. Confederate issue wooden trowser buttons are acceptable in limited numbers after Spring '64. Hand finished top stitching and button holes.
  4. Military Issue - Other Depot Styles. Side seam pockets, no yoke. Back belt with buckle, and made from jeans or cassimere. Buttons may be bone, composition, or japanned tin of the proper style. Confederate issue wooden trowser buttons are acceptable in limited numbers after Spring '64. Hand finished top stitching and button holes.
  5. Federal Issue Trousers. These should be avoided under all circumstances. No captured pants, please!

On the practice of "blousing" of trousers. Many re-enactors tuck their trouser bottoms into their socks, a practice known as "blousing". This helped prevent ticks, insects, dust and dirt from getting up their pants legs. This was not considered stylish or "proper." However, it was practiced on fatigue duty or on active campaign. Under no circumstances is blousing permitted during inspection or parade. In fact, the "fashion statement" of the soldiers of the day was to have the trousers jauntily cuffed up, just above the center of the shoelaces. Southern soldiers tended to be very vain about their appearance, and would try to be "in-style." So keep your trousers unbloused unless the situation calls for it. Check period photographs and you can verify this for yourself.

E. SUSPENDERS/BRACES:

("Braces" was a period term; however, many period sources consistently list them as "Suspenders.")

They should be made exclusively of period materials (cotton, canvas and especially linen). Please don't buy elastic suspenders, regardless of what the sutlers might tell you.

  1. Civilian - Any type of period civilian model with tin or brass buckles. No buckles of nickel-plated metal. Any stitching should be hand sewn.
  2. Canvas or Ticking - hand-stitched with hand-sewn buttonholes.

F. DRAWERS:

Period drawers help prevent chafing and help keep the skin clean (if washed betwen events). Long drawers often had ribbon ties at the ankles. Short (summer) drawers ended just below the knee, and had no ties.

Many reenactors let their drawer legs protrude from beneath their cuffed pants leg. Consequently, the drawers become soiled and grungy. Period photographs suggest that this was uncommon among the soldiers. Evidence suggests that soldiers rolled up their drawers with their trouser legs.

  1. Civilian Pattern - Cotton Osnaburg or muslin, cotton or wool flannel. Bone, glass or wood buttons with hand sewn button holes. (EOG/CS - page 154)
  2. Military Pattern - Cotton Osnaburg or muslin or cotton flannel. Bone, glass or wood buttons with hand sewn button holes. (EOG/US - page 27)

G. SOCKS:

Any plain gray rag wool socks are temporarily acceptable for now, and most sutlers sell these at a reasonable price. However, knitted socks are really more accurate (these can be purchased at a very reasonable cost from Michael Black, Boyd Miles, etc.- see Sutler list). Wool for the winter months and cooler weather, and cotton for the warmer part of the year. They should be white, dull blue, gray, brownish-red, or brown. Also, a number of new, very authentic sutleries are selling well made, inexpensive, knitted woolen socks. Check with the unit "old hands" for sources of these.

Absolutely no hunting, hiking or athletic socks (i.e. gray wool with red or orange stripes around the top and so forth).

  1. Civilian socks, particularly hand-knitted cotton or wool [EOG/CS - page 175].

H. SHOES:

("Brogans" was a period term; however, period documents consistently list them as "Shoes.")

For adults, period boots or brogans are the only acceptable footwear! Brogans are more comfortable for walking, and cooler, although many Confederate soldiers did prefer to wear boots. Metal heel-plates will extend their life and prevent excessive wear on the leather heels. Also, cork insteps increase their comfort. Custom made boots are also an option, however due to cost they are not recommended for new re-enactors (or poverty stricken veterans!).

Some re-enactors say that period shoes did not have grommets or metal eyelets. This is not true. Some period shoes did have metal grommets, metal eyelets and buckles. Most of these were manufactured in England and supplied to the Confederate Army through the blockade. However, they do not look like modern work shoes or work boots. Bob Serio of Missouri Boot and Shoe makes these types of shoes. Please do not buy modern shoes that look "old" and assume they are acceptable!

Going barefoot is an acceptable practice, however, shoes and/or boots should be worn during drill and battle, both for correct uniform requirements, liability issues, and reasons of basic safety.

All that being said, the first purchase should be the Federal 1855 Jefferson bootee. [EOG/US - page 191]. Either smooth or rough side out is acceptable. Then you should purchase one of the types listed below.

  1. Confederate Issue Shoes - Confederate issue. [EOG/CS - pages 174-175].
  2. English shoes or boots - Military or civilian styles. [EOG/CS - page 174].
  3. Identified civilian boots - Wellington boots have been identified. [EOG/US - page 172].

I. VESTS:

  1. Period civilian or military styles. Jean, linsey-woolsey, or cotton, made of period pattern, style and construction. [EOG/CS - pages 101, 106, 113 & 114].

II. BLANKETS, TENTAGE & ETC.

A. BLANKETS:

Soldiers used blanket rolls extensively. Some soldiers never liked wearing knapsacks and discarded them quickly for the more evenly distributed weight of a blanket roll.

They should be dense and strongly woven, in dull colors. Beware of cotton quilts (once they get wet, they stay wet).

  1. Civilian - Blankets of 100% wool or jean, should be muted earth-tones. No synthetic blends. Browns and grays are acceptable colors. Binding should be hand sewn.
  2. North Carolina Issue [EOG/CS - page 203] or other Confederate State Issues
  3. Any Identified Blanket - Quilts are discouraged.
  4. Captured U.S. Issue - U.S. Issue blankets of either brown or gray. [EOG/US - page 214].

B. TENTAGE:

Shelter tents are the only authorized tentage, as a campaign style impression shall be the norm at the vast majority of events.

  1. Captured U.S. shelter half, 100% canvas with NO brass grommets or rope. No triangular pieces. Hand sewn button holes with bone buttons. Limited use (EOG/US - page 214)
  2. Confederate "issue" rain fly - Cotton canvas grommets of appropriate size and material. Dimensions should generally be no more than 8 ft x 12 ft.

C. GUM BLANKETS/GROUND CLOTHS:

Blanket rolls are usually wrapped in a tarred canvas oilcloth or a rubber blanket. Ponchos have that infamous neck slit that never quite seals. It may be good for wearing as a raincoat, but tends to get you wet when you cover up at night to sleep in the rain! Purchase a gum blanket or oil cloth and fasten it around the neck instead.

  1. Linseed soaked canvas.
  2. Confederate Issue Oil Cloth - Canvas painted with oil or enamel paint.
  3. Captured Federal Issue - Rubber blanket or poncho. Limited use. [EOG/US - page 215].


III. ACCOUTERMENTS

A. HAVERSACKS:

  1. C.S. Issue - Bag of identified C.S. pattern. Button or buckle closure.
  2. U.S. Issue - Bag of identified U.S. pattern. Tarred type with buckle and inner bag. [EOG/US - pages 199, 210 & 211].

B. CANTEENS:

  1. Wooden style - Specifically, the Gardner Pattern, made of cedar/cypress/cherry wood/etc. Various styles. [EOG/CS - page 209].
  2. C.S. Tin Drum style - Various sizes and styles, try to find a commonly identified type. [EOG/CS - pages 210 & 211].
  3. U.S. Issue (Bulls Eye or Smooth Side) - With or without jean or wool cover. If a U.S. canteen is chosen, select a tin, not stainless steel, canteen with a dark blue cover instead of a gray or light blue. [EOG/US - pages 199, 206, 207 & 208].

C. CARTRIDGE BOXES:

  1. Any Army of Tennessee (A.O.T.) identified box.
  2. U.S. Pattern of 1839, 1857 or 1861 box appropriate for your musket (see below):

.58 caliber:

Pattern of 1857 or Pattern of August, 1861

.69 Smoothbore

Pattern of 1839 or Pattern of 1861

.69 Rifled-Musket

Pattern of March, 1857 or Pattern of 1861

D. CAP POUCHES:

  1. Any Army of Tennessee (A.O.T.) identified pouch.
  2. US Pattern 1850

E. BELT PLATES/FRAMES & WAIST BELTS

Belts and belt buckles are available in many styles. Most are acceptable, but limit your impression to those readily available and documentable. Black, two inch leather belts fitted with a simple roller buckle [EOG/CS - pages 192 & 195] or "Georgia frame" [EOG/CS - page 190 & 195] are excellent choices. Do not use the oval CS or CSA buckles because the originals look very different from the ones sold by sutlers. Based upon the few relics dug from areas where the Confederate armies spent considerable time (e.g. Fredericksburg, the "Manassas Line", or the camps along the Rapidan and Rappahannock rivers), few have been located. Frame buckles, on the other hand, were very common and have been heavily documented from these areas.

Many reenactors are beginning to use "tarred" or painted canvas belts and slings which are perfectly acceptable, especially when fitted with a roller buckle. However, if you purchase one of these items remember that tarred canvas was meant to be temporary. They never last as long as their leather equivalents. Interestingly, they cost almost as much as leather belts. Therefore, equip yourself first with a well made leather belt.

Other acceptable buckles:

  1. Any Army of Tennessee (A.O.T.) identified plate or buckle.
  2. Atlanta Arsenal "C.S.A." Plate. [EOG/CS - page 195].
  3. C.S. "Clipped Corner" Plate. [EOG/CS - page 198].
  4. "Forked-Tongue" Buckle. [EOG/CS - page 196].

F. BAYONET SCABBARDS: (Bayonet should fit its matched weapon)

  1. Any identified AoT frog and scabbard.
  2. Tarred Canvas scabbard.
  3. U.S. non-regulation 7 or 8 rivet pattern. [EOG/US - page 202].

G. KNAPSACKS (Optional):

Many people are making knapsacks, so it is easy to become confused about what to buy. For comfort, the "soft-pack" knapsack is the preferred item.

Federal knapsacks of the 1853/55 pattern are acceptable, but CS knapsacks are highly encouraged.

  1. Federal Knapsack (EOG/US - pages 212 &213).
  2. CS Knapsack: Either a Kibbler pack (EOG/CS - page 202), hardpack (EOG/CS - page 205) or S. Isaac & Campbell, Co knapsack (EOG/CS - page 207).
  3. Mexican War Pattern. [EOG/CS - page 205].

IV. WEAPONS

All original muskets must look new and be in proper working order. Proper modifications of reproduction weapons must include removal of all anachronistic workings, burnishing of questionable parts, replacement of barrel bands, and stamping of correct markings.

  1. US 1842 Harpers Ferry or Springfield .69 cal. Smoothbore. Stock finished in boiled linseed oil. Burnished finish.
  2. US 1842 Harpers Ferry or Springfield .69 cal. Rifled, rear sight. Stock finished in boiled linseed oil. Burnished finish.
  3. US 1861 Rifled Musket .58 cal. Springfield. Stock finished in boiled linseed oil. Burnished finish.

V. AMMUNITION (BLANK CARTRIDGES)

  1. Each soldier shall carry forty rounds in his cartridge box when the Company falls in at the beginning of each battle unless told otherwise.
  2. Each cartridge for .58 cal. rifled muskets will have no more than 70 grains of black powder; .69 cal. muskets will contain no more than 80 grains of black powder. No pyrodex or smokeless powder will be used. Officer's revolvers will contain appropriate charges for the weapon. No "wonder wads" are permitted.
  3. Blank cartridges should not be carried loose in the cartridge box. Proper tins or labeled packages of cartridges are required.
  4. Each soldier will have enough caps to fire the required 40 rounds in his cartridge box.

VI. SAFETY

  1. To participate in an event where firearms MAY be fired, every participant shall submit to a weapons inspection. This inspection shall ensure that the weapon is in proper working order. This inspection shall require: A clean and clear bore, no loose or unsafe parts, and that the lock /safety performs in its proper manner. Hammers shall be inspected to ensure they are centered so they strike the cone evenly and do not crush or deform the percussion caps.
  2. A cartridge box inspection shall also be performed prior to the commencement of each day's activities which may include the possible firing of weapons. Cartridge boxes will have tins appropriate for the box or ammunition wrapped in proper packages. No worms, ball screws or other cleaning gear may be carried in the cartridge box.

VII. RATIONS

A soldier's daily ration from Mike Murley of the Rowdy Pards. Generally, keeping within the below list is safe and correct.

  1. Fruit and vegetables must be in season to a particular campaign area.
  2. Types of meat will be: salt pork, slab bacon, beef or ham.
  3. Year-round staples will be: corn meal, beans, peas, white rice, goober peas (raw peanuts), parched corn, early (small, red) potatoes, sweet potatoes, headed carrots, onions, nuts, and flour.

VIII. COOKING EQUIPMENT

  1. Frying pans should be made of tin or stamped steel, riveted with a stamped steel handle (cast iron skillets are not correct to the period). Documentation shows that soldiers used canteen halves as a creative substitute for skillets with forks, slit branches or whatever available for handles. A forked tree branch over the campfire makes an excellent cooking implement for meat. A cast iron pot used by the company mess would be correct.
  2. Metal fire grates or spits shall not be allowed.
  3. Knives, forks and spoons must be of Civil War style, the forks are generally three-pronged, and utensils are either bone or wooden handled. (Stay away from anything stamped "stainless steel"). Original utensils are affordable and can usually be found at most flea markets, antique malls and civil war shows. Reproduction utensils can be obtained from sutlers at reenactments and by mail order.
  4. Tinware & Flatware: You'll need a good stout cup and period flatware (spoon, fork and maybe a knife). You can buy a plate or a canteen half - which serves as both skillet and plate for the veteran. You might also want a peach can boiler.

Note: No Company personnel will use any enameled "speckleware" of any color. It was not available until the 1870s and its use will not be tolerated. This same goes with stainless steel cups, boilers, plates, &c.

IX. CAMPING

Soldiers will be subject only to orders from their own Officers and NCOs. Nevertheless, all enlisted men shall show proper military courtesy to the Officers and NCOs of other units within the Battalion.

X. DRILL

Drill techniques will be predominantly taken from Hardee's C. S. Drill Manual, dated 1861 (known today, as "Goetzle's Edition") or Hardee's C. S. Drill Manual, dated 1861 (known today, as the "North Carolina Drill Manual").

 

GLOSSARY OF CLOTHING AND TEXTILE TERMS
(from Fairchild's Dictionary of Textiles)

Broadcloth- A twilled woolen cloth with a smooth lustrous face and dense texture.

Homespun- Any loosely woven woolen or linen garment made with handspun thread. Most often a plain weave.

Jean Cloth- (pronounced as in "blue jeans" or "janes") A twilled fabric, most often used in work garments. "Jean wool" is made with a cotton warp and a woolen weft or fill, showing heavy diagonal wool ribbing.

Kersey- A heavy grade of all wool, twill fabric with a pronounced diagonal pattern. Named for the town in England where it originated, it was most commonly used in work clothes and uniforms.

Linsey-Woolsey- A variety of homespun popular during pioneer days and made with a heavy linen or flax warp and wool weft, hence the name "Linsey" (linen)/ "Woolsey" (woolen).

Satinette- A woolen fill, cotton warp, satin weave cloth, made to look like all wool broadcloth by having the woolen weft thrown to the front and the cotton warp hidden on the inner surface.

Twill- A woven textile in which the weft threads pass over one and under two or more warp threads, resulting in a pattern of diagonal lines. Most jean cloths are a so-called 2/1 or "two over one" twill.

Warp- The heavier threads in a weave, they extend the length of the loom. and are crossed by the shuttle or weft.

Weft- The yarn used on the shuttle, which crosses the warp during weaving. Sometimes referred to as the "fill" or "woof".


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